C. S. Lewis and “The Four Loves”

C.S. Lewis has written many books on many subjects, in many genres.  Often, people find his non-fiction writing to be too complex to navigate, or its context too distant to understand.  His examples from his contemporary world don’t always relate to today’s reader, and so they require a sort of translation.   Many great writers have undertaken this task – of studying and interpreting Lewis’ works, and applying them to the issues of today.  In many cases, this proves worthwhile, as Lewis’s writings are often quite applicable to issues that arise in postmodernity.

But, even for those who have not read Lewis or looked into his ideas with any great depth, the name Lewis carries an authority, perhaps unlike any other writer in contemporary Christianity.  If one can attach a Lewis quote to any claim, it provides instant validation.  Lewis is one of those few people who, after finding success in his given academic field (literature), became an authority in almost any other field – at least in the eyes of his followers.  Something similar could be said of Einstein (just look up what the famous physicist says about marriage, philosophy, etc.).

I grew up having the Chronicles of Narnia read to me and my siblings every summer vacation.  Their overall narrative allegorised the great meta-narrative of which we are all part; the plot and characters accomplished something similar to what the Bible’s narrative can do.  As a young adult, I worked through Mere Christianity, finding well-reasoned treatments of classic philosophical problems – especially concerning the existence of God.  Since then, I’ve tried to chip away, little by little, at his other writings.  I’m glad to say that, finally, I’ve finished The Four Loves.

Rather than formally reviewing it, and rather than picking out juicy quotes to share, I’d like to share what I got from it: a framework for understanding love.  Lewis did not provide a chart, like I have below; he followed his typical essay-format, progressively working through the topics in sequence.  Yet, as I worked through it, my systematic mind began noticing relationships between the Four Loves – how they were similar or different in various ways.  Below, I’ve attempted to express a few findings that have proved helpful for me:

Survival, Need
Involuntary Feeling
Possessive
Civilisation, Enrichment
Voluntary Decision
Disinterested
Indiscriminate
Not Exclusive
Giving
Unmerited
Unconditional
Affection” = Storge
-“Need Love”
– Natural sentiment, loyalty, familiarity
– Family care
“Care for”
Charity” = Agape
-“Gift-Love”
– Giving without self-interest; sacrificial without self-protection
– Divine source
“Love”
Discriminate
Exclusive
Pleasure
Merited
Conditional
Eros” = Eros
– Desire to possess
– Romantic attraction
“Want”
Friendship” = Philos
– Approval, appreciation
– Culture, camaraderie
“Like”

To me, the advantage of a chart like this is that it doesn’t rank them; like many personality tests, it simply expresses them as a combination of binary choices.  The Myers-Briggs test offers four binary choices, resulting in sixteen possible personality types; similarly, Lewis presents us with four possible Love-types, and I have attempted to identify the two binary choices.

Lewis begins with a discussion of Affection, coming from the Greek word, Storge.  In many ways, he rehabilitates this word, showing how essential it is for the survival and stability of humanity.  It refers to a mother’s care for an infant, and any person’s pity for someone in need.  Moreover, it can apply to any sentimental feeling, toward something familiar – a place, a taste, an old friend.  The difference between this and Friendship is it’s indiscriminate, involuntary nature; while friendship comes from approval, affection reflects a deeper loyalty.  For me, I can think of a few friends who have become like brothers – through our common experience, especially in my younger years, they have become like brothers to me; because of our common past, there is a sense of loyalty.  Though I may find others with whom I have more in common, or even for whom I have more respect, no one can share my past.  What about for you – what happens when you meet someone new, who has had a similar past, or who is from the same hometown?  Perhaps that feeling, that sense of brotherhood, is Storge.

Lewis proceeds to describe Friendship, coming from the Greek word, Philos.  Unlike Affection, it is discriminate, or selective.  It occurs where there is commonality – of opinions, values, and preferences.  A bond forms when people, who have identified themselves with certain interests and characteristics, find the same in each other.  Yet, also unlike Affection, it is not needy.  Lewis warns of how familial affection can become a “need-love,” when the lover desires to continue being needed.  In contrast, Friendship respects the individuality of the other, appreciating and reinforcing his or her unique qualities that make him or her worthy of appreciation.  I can think of classmates, teammates, roommates, and co-workers who have stood out from the pack because of their unique qualities.  A mutual appreciation formed, where we did not try to change or control the other.  Yet, Friendship can also move beyond this to become needy – to become Eros…

Eros, a Greek word referring to romantic, possessive desire, is fairly straightforward.  Like Friendship, it is conditional, and discriminate.  But, beyond appreciation, Eros involves attraction; like Affection, it is needy and possessive.  Family affection can involve an unconditional, but possessive care.  Friendship involves appreciation from a healthy distance.  Eros combines elements of both – a conditional attraction with a desire to possess.  Obviously, this can sound rather negative; indeed, conditional and possessive love can become ugly.  But, in light of its similarity to the other loves, Eros can have a positive outcome.  Essentially, it involves a desire to move someone from “friend” to “family.”  In my own life, I’m glad to have Eros in this assigned place.

Charity, (based on the Greek word, Agape) similarly, combines elements of Affection and Friendship – only they might be considered to be the positive ones.   Like Affection, Charity is indiscriminate.  The objects of Affection and Charity are not selected – and so the love must be unconditional.  Yet, rather than being based on the un-chosen factors of family and background, Charity is based on the un-chosen, un-merited love of God.  Charity is given to us by our Creator, because we are His creation.  This is often referred to as “common grace;” God shines the sun and drops the rain on everyone (Matthew 5:44-45).  Charity is also shown preeminently in the Son of God, Jesus Christ, Who died for the sins of humanity (1 John 2:2), so that we can be forgiven, and reconciled with God.  It is from receiving this love that we can love (1 John 4:19).  While sharing the non-selective nature of Affection, Charity also shares the disinterested nature of Friendship.  It is not needy, but enriching to the other.  While Eros and Affection desire to possess and be needed, Charity gives unconditionally.  Rather than arising from a felt need, Charity, like Friendship, is a voluntary decision.  Yet, unlike Friendship, Charity is not exclusive; Charity gives to all, equally.

Charity, of course, is impossible – humanly speaking.  I just performed a wedding where the couple chose 1 Corinthians 13:4-7 as their theme verses.  It gives a perfect, beautiful picture of what Charity/agape is.  Yet, as we read this inspiring vision of the perfect love of God, we are also made aware of how much we fall short of it.  These verses serve as a double-edged sword, serving as both an inspiring ideal and a condemning comparison.  

I actually once heard someone tell another person to insert their name in place of the word “love” in 1 Corinthians 13, and to use it as instructions for life.  Imagine reading that – while at first it may sound flattering or inspiring, deep down you’ll know it’s a lie.  At the wedding I recently officiated, I didn’t want to just leave the poor newlyweds with a set of instructions.  I wanted to assure them that there is good news.  Look what the apostle John, “whom Jesus loved,” says about love:

Dear friends, let us love one another, for love comes from God. Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love. This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him. 10 This is love: not that we loved God, but that he loved us and sent his Son as an atoning sacrifice for our sins.11 Dear friends, since God so loved us, we also ought to love one another. (1 John 4:7-11)

In light of John’s words, how should we treat 1 Corinthians 13?
Try inserting “God” in place of the word “love.”  God is love.  Therefore, God is patient, God is kind…etc.

How does that change things?
We are made for love.  Loving God and our neighbor sums up all of God’s commandments, and Jesus’s special commandment to His followers is to “love one another.”  Pretty simple.  Yet, we are completely unable to do this, until we begin receiving His love.  We are not only made to love, but to be loved by God.  Only God satisfies the need that we feel, and once we find it in Him, we find ourselves loving others!

Augustine famously said in his Confessions,

“You have made us for Yourself, and our hearts are restless, until they can find rest in You.”

Similarly, Jesus said,

“I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will never go hungry, and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty. (John 6:35)

If we are ever to love in the best way, we’d better get good at being loved.  We’d better get used to the fact that Christianity is not about what we can do, but what God has done, is doing, and will do for us and through us.  Jesus said that you cannot enter His kingdom unless you humble yourself like a child.  And this is how you become His child:

Yet to all who did receive him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God (John 1:12).

Believe in Who Jesus is, receive His love, and it will transform you.
It will reverse the order of everything in your life, when you find that His love is actually the source of everything else you need to do.
It will re-orient your thinking, and make you a new person – a child of God, growing up to resemble your Father!

Exodus 19 & Numbers 14: God’s Special People for a Special Purpose

I recently had a fascinating conversation about predestination.  The issue always seems to come up at some point in a Christian’s journey – Does God show favoritism?  Do we really have free will?

Throughout the book of Genesis, we’ve observed how God would initiate relationships with individuals – Abraham and His chosen offspring.  He would call them to follow Him, and act specially on their behalf while using them as His instruments.  In Exodus, we see God acting specially on behalf of an entire nationIsrael (descended from Abraham).  He saves them from Egypt and brings them safely to Mt. Sinai, where He explicitly defines this special relationship with them:

‘You yourselves have seen what I did to Egypt, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself. Now if you obey me fully and keep my covenant, then out of all nations you will be my treasured possession. Although the whole earth is mine, you will be for me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words you are to speak to the Israelites.” (Exodus 19:4-6).

What?  Why are they so special?  Why does Israel receive this privilege?
God later makes it clear that it has nothing to do with their own merit.  It is also well-known that God does not show favouritism.
So, what is the meaning of this?

This is actually consistent with God’s purpose, all along.  Remember that God specially chose humans to bear His image and be stewards of creation.  He specially chose Abraham to be a blessing to all nations.  Now, He specially chooses Israel to be a kingdom of priests.  They are to be holy and set apart – not for their own sake, but as mediators between God and all people.  Their salvation would serve as a witness of God’s power, their obedience as a witness of God’s wisdom, and their presence as an inviting light to all nations.  It is primarily through Israel that God would work in the world, reveal Himself, and bless other nations.  Eventually the promise of blessing all nations would be fulfilled in Jesus Christ, a descendent of Abraham.  Jesus would also serve as the perfect High Priest  and Mediator, dying for the sins of the world:

But if anybody does sin, we have an advocate with the Father—Jesus Christ, the Righteous One. He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world. (1 John 2:1-2)

But God’s plan isn’t complete, yet.  His purpose is still to work through a chosen people, to bring about the redemption of the world.  Jesus calls His followers the light of the world who will be sent out as “fishers of men” to invite all people to follow Him .  Now, Jesus’s followers compose the new People of God – united and identified through faith in Christ – not race, class, or gender.  Through faith in Christ, they are reconciled to God and to one another – many nations made into one new humanity – a family of God, a new Temple in which the Spirit dwells.  Believers are also collectively referred to as Christ’s Body – the instrument through which He still works on earth.  Christians are also called a New Creation, and ambassadors who bring God’s message of reconciliation to the world.  In fact, Peter refers to the Church in the same wording that we see in Exodus 19:

But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light. (1 Peter 2:9)

But again – why the favoritism?  How is it fair that God would choose some?  Does He predestine some to be saved, and others not?
If it is not clear yet, I will state clearly now: God’s overarching purpose is the redemption of all things.  That is the end of the story – heaven and earth uniting and everything being made new – God and humanity together, again.  God is reconciling all things to Himself and entrusting to believers, the beginning of His New Creation, the message of reconciliation.  Yes, He actively calls certain people to follow and serve Him; He actively chose a certain nation to be His own; and He has called and chosen His Church to be set apart.  Yet, these people are no one special.  If anything, weakness is their best quality , which shows God’s strength to the world.  But God calls His people to pray for the world, wanting everyone to be saved, patiently waiting for all to come to repentance.  To put it succinctly, Paul explains God’s purpose in one, long sentence:

Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before him. In love he predestined us for adoption to himself as sons through Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will, to the praise of his glorious grace, with which he has blessed us in the Beloved.  In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace, which he lavished upon us, in all wisdom and insight, making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his purpose, which he set forth in Christ as a plan for the fullness of time, to unite all things in him, things in heaven and things on earth. (Ephesians 1:3-10)

So, God specially calls people to follow Him – for the purpose of reaching out to others.  He has plans to unite all under Christ, reconciling the world to Himself – and He plans to do it through His chosen people.  N.T. Wright says this about our salvation:

“the work of salvation, in its full sense, is (1) about whole human beings, not merely souls; (2) about the present, not simply the future; and (3) about what God does through us, not merely what God does in and for us.”

Paul claims to have been called to ministry before his birth – but, before call this “favouritism,” see what Jesus says about him at his point of conversion:

he is a chosen instrument of mine to carry my name before the Gentiles and kings and the children of Israel. For I will show him how much he must suffer for the sake of my name. (Acts 9:15-16)

Being God’s instrument is no cake walk.  It’s not just a free pass.  It wasn’t for Abraham, and it wasn’t for Israel.  God tests and disciplines His children, wanting to work with willing participants who trust Him.  Though God called Abraham and promised to make him a blessing, this plan was not confirmed and fulfilled until Abraham’s faith was confirmed.  Likewise, though God called Israel to be His people, and promised to give them rest in the land of Canaan, this plan was not fulfilled until Israel learned to trust Him and receive the promise by faith.  When Israel on the verge of entering the promised land, the majority of them lost faith and decided to turn back to Egypt.  Though God had saved them from slavery and sustained them in the desert, they did not believe He could overcome their opposition in Canaan.  In response, God was ready to wipe them out and start a new nation with Moses – He could accomplish His plan through anyone, and didn’t particularly need Israel.  But, see how Moses interceded on their behalf:

But Moses said to the Lord, “Then the Egyptians will hear of it, for you brought up this people in your might from among them, and they will tell the inhabitants of this land. They have heard that you, O Lord, are in the midst of this people. For you, O Lord, are seen face to face, and your cloud stands over them and you go before them, in a pillar of cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night. Now if you kill this people as one man, then the nations who have heard your fame will say, ‘It is because the Lord was not able to bring this people into the land that he swore to give to them that he has killed them in the wilderness.’ (Numbers 14:13-16)

See Moses’s reasoning?  Israel should not be saved for their own sake; they were undeserving, and not essential to God’s plan.  But, for the sake of God’s reputation, He should save Israel.  In light of His plan to show His power to all nations, He should follow through with His commitment to Israel.  For the sake of other nations, God must use Israel’s weakness to show His strength – so that all nations might put their faith in Him.  Moses continues:

And now, please let the power of the Lord be great as you have promised, saying, ‘The Lord is slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, forgiving iniquity and transgression, but he will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, to the third and the fourth generation.’ Please pardon the iniquity of this people, according to the greatness of your steadfast love, just as you have forgiven this people, from Egypt until now.”

Not only would God’s power be called into question if Israel was destroyed, but so would His love.  God had claimed to be loving and forgiving, and had treated Israel accordingly up to this point.  Moses calls Him to remain faithful to His promise, despite Israel’s unfaithfulness.

And God relents.  He pardons Israel, but also disciplines them for their instruction, and as an example for us.  Yet, God does not change.  His change of course actually reflects His persistence of purpose, and His consistency of character.

  • Despite Israel’s wavering faith, God continued to pursue His purpose of blessing all nations through Israel.  Through saving them, He would show Himself to be the One, true God.
    Like a spouse who remains in a troubled marriage for the sake of the children and home, God would remain faithful to Israel for the sake of His greater purpose – the redemption of the world.
  • Despite Israel’s change of heart, God remained faithful in His commitment to love, forgive, and care for His chosen people.
    Like a neglected spouse who continues to do their part, patiently waiting for the other to change, God would remain faithful to Israel because His love is perfect and patient.

Through this episode between God and Israel, we see clearly that God treats people according to His purpose and character.  His plan does not depend on our success, nor does His love depend on our worthiness.

  • Despite the blunders of His people, God persists in His purpose to bless and redeem the world.  So, He shows His power by accomplishing His will through our weakness.
  • Despite the resistance of His people, God’s character remains consistent.  He shows His love by forgiving and pardoning us simply because He has promised to do so.

Isn’t it comforting to know that God’s plans are bigger than us?  

  • His faithfulness to His people is for His purpose of reaching the world.

And isn’t it comforting to know that God’s love doesn’t depend on us?

  • His faithfulness to His people comes from Who He is, not what we do.

Psalm 116:5-7 says:
Gracious is the Lord, and righteous;
    our God is merciful.
The Lord preserves the simple;
    when I was brought low, he saved me.
Return, O my soul, to your rest;
    for the Lord has dealt bountifully with you.

Online messages available here.

Easter Week: Remembering with God’s People

Has God done some great things in your life?
Does this have an enduring effect on your life, or is it too easy to forget?

Over the years, God’s people were called to remember the wondrous works that he has done” (Psalm 105:5).  Entire Psalms (105-107) were written to help them with this endeavor, as they sought to “tell to the coming generation the glorious deeds of the Lord, and his might, and the wonders that he has done…that the next generation might know them, the children yet unborn, and arise and tell them to their children, so that they should set their hope in God (Psalm 78:4-7).

Israel was called to always look back and remember their salvation from Egypt and entrance into the promised land – when they passed through the waters of the Red Sea and River Jordan.  The work was complete, and they were called to live in light of this new reality.  Likewise, a Christian is given the experience of baptism – as a milestone to mark the death of their old self and rebirth as a Christian.  The work is complete, and we are called to live out the new life that we’ve been given.

On Sundays at Parkdale, we learn from the stories of God’s people in the Bible – but we also invite people to share testimonies – to help us remember what God has done.  There are always parallels between our stories!  Yesterday, as the AA group met in our church building, I observed a similar dynamic – people being encouraged as others take time to look back and see how far they’ve come.

This Sunday, we enter the week of Easter.  I look forward to kicking it off with a celebration of the Lord’s Supper – followed by a Potluck!  Jesus instituted this special meal among His followers as a way to remember His body and blood – given as a sacrifice for our sins.  Just as Israel would slay a lamb at Passover (Exodus 12) to remember how God spared them from the plagues in Egypt, so Christians celebrate with the bread and cup to remember how God spared us from our sins – through the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ (Luke 22:15-20).  But that’s not all – the meal is also a time to look forward to the Great Banquet that we will again enjoy with Him when He returns, to complete His kingdom! (Luke 14:15-24; 22:28-30)

May your Easter season be a time of both solemn remembrance, and joyful anticipation, in light of our Lord Jesus Christ!

Online messages available here.

Exodus 1-18: Seeing God in a New Way

What is God like?
Is He all-powerful?  All good?
Apart from us?  With us?
For us?  Against us?

Distinct answers to these binary questions form the basis of worldviews, philosophies, and religions – it all comes down to what you think about God.  In light of the problem of evil, Atheists and agnostics will view God’s power and goodness as mutually exclusive – while Christians will trust that God is working to pursue, convince, and redeem His lost, but free people.  Many eastern religions (polytheist, pantheist, mystic) emphasize God’s nearness, while western philosophy from the enlightenment (Deist) emphasizes God’s separation from humanity.  In contrast, Christians will embrace that both are made possible through the work of the Trinity, as revealed in the stories of Scripture.

If you’ve read through Genesis, I hope you can say that you’ve learned a lot about God’s character.  I hope you have observed the manner in which He relates to people.  And I hope that you’ve gained a sense of His purpose for humanity.  I’ve argued that our purpose in reading Genesis should be to get to know God.  He is the Protagonist of the story Who ties it all together.  We’re not looking to other characters for an example to follow; rather, we learn through the context of their stories about how God interacts with people.

God specially created humans to bear His image, to be fruitful and multiply – exercising stewardship over the earth on His behalf.  When people persisted in rebellion, God specially chose Noah to re-start humanity.  When people united in their pride, God scattered the nations and specially called Abraham – a man with apparently limited potential – to father a nation that would bless all others.  God entered into a personal relationship with Abraham and his descendants, making promises and inviting them to respond in faith.  So, Genesis was all about God’s personal interactions with individuals, who He used to reach out to others.
Four centuries pass
between Genesis and Exodus, and Abraham’s descendants have been “fruitful and multiplied” in Egypt.  They have now become a great nation – just as God had promised to Abraham – and a threat to Egypt.  The time is right for Israel to leave there, and the time is right for them to enter Canaan, where the people have been given their allotted time (Genesis 15:13-16).

Again, the time has come for God to act – to intervene in world affairs, and reveal Himself in a new way.  His purpose and methods are still the same – choosing people to use for His glory – but His chosen instrument is different.  In Genesis, God related directly to individuals – especially the patriarchs; in Exodus, God now acts on behalf of their descendants – the nation of Israel.  After the setting is described, the story of God’s action begins as follows:

During those many days the king of Egypt died, and the people of Israel groaned because of their slavery and cried out for help. Their cry for rescue from slavery came up to God. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. God saw the people of Israel—and God knew. (Exodus 2:23-25)

God heard…remembered…saw…knew.   A new side of God is being revealed.  In fact, in the very next chapter, He personally reveals Himself to Moses in the form of a burning bush.  In this one moment, we see that the Angel of the Lord Who is seen in the bush is also the same God Who is speaking from it – the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.  Finding himself in God’s holy presence, Moses removes his sandals and hides his face in fear (Exodus 3:1-6).  Yet, this holy God is not aloof and unapproachable.  He tells Moses:

The Lord said, “I have indeed seen the misery of my people in Egypt. I have heard them crying out because of their slave drivers, and I am concerned about their suffering. So I have come down to rescue them from the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land into a good and spacious land (Exodus 3:7-8)

This same God Who created the world, called Abraham, and appeared in a burning bush is the Lord who sees, hears, cares, and comes to the rescue.  In Genesis, we see references to “God” and “the LORD” interspersed.  The generic term, “God,” or Elohim is often used when referring to God’s Almighty, macro-level activity.  The personal term, “LORD,” or Yahweh, is used when God personally interacts with humans.  It is here, in Exodus 3, that God formally introduces Himself to Moses as Yahweh, the LORD, the I AM.  The true, living God of Creation is the One Who is with the nation of Israel.  He explains to Moses:

God also said to Moses, “I am the Lord. I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob as God Almighty, but by my name the Lord I did not make myself fully known to them. I also established my covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan, where they resided as foreigners. Moreover, I have heard the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians are enslaving, and I have remembered my covenant. “Therefore, say to the Israelites: ‘I am the Lord, and I will bring you out from under the yoke of the Egyptians. I will free you from being slaves to them, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment. (Exodus 6:2-6)

And indeed, God brings them out, and saves them.  Egypt is devastated by plagues, the sea is parted, and the nation is miraculously fed.  God fulfils His promise to Abraham (Genesis 15:13-16), and also to Moses – that Israel would worship God at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 3:12).

In the early chapters of Exodus, we see more clearly than anywhere else (until Christ’s coming) that the Almighty God above is also down with His people.  Centuries later, God says in Isaiah 57:15:

For thus says the One who is high and lifted up,
    who inhabits eternity, whose name is Holy:
“I dwell in the high and holy place,
    and also with him who is of a contrite and lowly spirit,
to revive the spirit of the lowly,
    and to revive the heart of the contrite.

Praise God, who is Big Enough to save, and Near Enough to care!

Online messages available here.

Genesis 23-50: God’s Unlikely Heroes

If you’re following along through the book of Genesis, I hope you’re enjoying this fascinating story.  In these later chapters, things get quite…interesting.  From here on, the pages of Genesis are filled love stories, sibling hatred, rivalry between wives, rape, scandal, God’s promises and, through it all, God’s blessing.

For quite some time, the book of Genesis focuses on the development of the relationship between Abraham and God.  God calls him to start a new life in a new land, where He will be blessed and become a great nation to bless all nations.  Through the twists and turns, conversations and silence of their relationship, Abraham proves his faith, while God remains faithful.

But, after Abraham’s death, a new phase in the story begins.  New questions emerge: Will God be faithful to Abraham’s descendants?  Will they, in turn, remain faithful to God?  If so, how will they be blessed, and become a blessing to others?

One cannot assume anything.  Just as a billionaire’s children may not manage their parents’ estate well, so it is uncertain whether or not the children of Abraham will “walk in the footsteps” of their father’s faith (Romans 4:12).

We begin with Isaac.  Unlike his father, he appears to be a timid man – rather than routing his enemies in battle (Genesis 14), he chooses to retreat from neighboring shepherds.  Yet, like his father, the LORD blesses him (Genesis 26:2-5), and others recognize it (Genesis 21:22-23; 26:26-29).  Yet, Isaac had his own strength – he seemed more loving and affectionate toward his wife, Rebekah.  The first mention of “love” in Genesis is spoken by the Angel of the LORD, in reference to Abraham’s love for Isaac.  There was no reference to marital love, up to that point; it is said that Sarah obeyed Abraham as her “lord” (1 Peter 3:6).  In contrast, upon meeting his newly arranged bride-to-be, it is immediately said that Isaac loved Rebekah (Genesis 24:67).  While his father was able to successfully pretend that he was not married to Sarah when they travelled, Isaac could not keep his hands off Rebekah (Genesis 26:6-9).  He also takes an active role in praying his wife when she is barren – something that could not be said of Abraham (Genesis 25:21).

Yet, love can have its dark side.  Isaac and Rebekah had twins, and each favoured a different one.  Yet God, in His wisdom, chose to pass on His blessing through the younger one – through Jacob (Genesis 25:22-23).  This would be His pattern throughout all time – displaying His power through weakness.  And, not only was Jacob younger, but his character offered little redemptive quality.  While Isaac lacked his father’s courage and strength, the apple may have fallen even farther from the tree, for Jacob.

Jacob was known to be a swindler.  He traded food for his brother’s birthright.  He disguised himself to steal his brother’s blessing.  Before long, he was fearing for his life, and fled to take refuge with his mother’s family.  There, he fell in love with his cousin, Rachel, and worked for 7 years in exchange for her hand in marriage.  He thought he had met his match, but was actually mistaken!  Rachel’s older sister, Leah, stole their first night through disguise, and later traded food with Rachel obtain further marriage privileges.  God had initiated a relationship with Jacob (Genesis 28:15), and now He was working on him.  He provided Leah, who’d teach Jacob a lesson and confront him with his faults (as many good wives do).  He would continue to “wrestle with God” until He had a new name, and was reconciled with his brother.  Leah, for her part, also needed a personal transformation – which happened through childbearing.  Though, at first, she was obsessed with finding affirmation from her husband, by the time she had her fourth son, she had learned to put her hope in God.  She named him “Judah,” meaning “praise (Genesis 29:31-35).

From here, people usually think that the story focuses on Joseph.  But, it’s more of an interplay between the two contrasting stories of Judah and Joseph.  Just as Judah’s birth brought transformation to her mother, so his life would bring transformation to his family.  And, just as God promised in a dream to bless and use Joseph, so would it come about – helping to fulfill God’s original blessings: for His people to “be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 1:28) and to be a “blessing to all nations” (Genesis 12:3).  The sons of Jacob are introduced in Genesis 37, where it is revealed that Joseph is not only his father’s favorite, but possibly God’s too.  He dreams that, one day, his whole family will bow down to him.

But, the story quickly turns to Judah.  When his brothers throw Joseph down a cistern and plot his death, Judah quickly takes charge, and convinces them to sell him as a slave to a passing caravan (Genesis 37:26-27).  Being the fourth-born, he seems to have supplanted the place of his older brothers, who had perhaps lost legitimacy because of their major sins (Genesis 34:25; 35:22).  However, after his father is grieved, Judah leaves the family and starts his own.  His first two sons die, due to wickedness, leaving his daughter-in-law, Tamar, a widow.  Though she is entitled to marry the third son, Judah refuses, fearing that his third son will die, as well.  When Judah’s own wife dies, Tamar disguises herself as a prostitute, seduces Judah, and becomes pregnant.  Judah is ready to have Tamar put to death for immorality, until he learns that he is the father.  This serves as a turning point for Judah, who repents (Genesis 38:26).

Joseph’s story then follows, in parallel, showing a strong contrast (Genesis 39-41).  He also leaves his family, though not by choice.  He also encounters a seductress, but refuses her, and is blamed for it, anyway.  In prison, God is with him, and be is a blessing to others.  He eventually interprets a dream of Pharaoh, and is promoted to second-in-command for the whole kingdom.  Joseph maintains his integrity, and God blesses him.Sometimes, people think of the story ending there.  Judah and his brothers were bad, and got punished.  Joseph was good, and got rewarded.  But the story continues:

Joseph is bitter.  When his family experiences a famine, Jacob sends his sons to Egypt for food – all except his new favorite, Joseph’s younger brother, Benjamin.  When the other ten brothers arrive in Egypt, they bow before Joseph, not recognizing him, nor that they were fulfilling his dream from years ago.  Joseph treats them harshly, accusing them of being spies, and tells them to never return unless Benjamin is with them.  The brothers show remorse for their former sin, and Joseph is brought to tears (Genesis 42:21-24).  The brothers return home, and Jacob refuses to send Benjamin.  Reuben offers the lives of his first two sons as insurance – an offer that is refused by his father.  Finally, Judah takes charge, and personally takes responsibility for Benjamin, convincing his father (Genesis 43:8-14).  When they return to Egypt, Joseph is brought to tears at the sight of Benjamin, but again hides his emotions.  This time, he frames Benjamin of theft, in an attempt to keep him in Egypt (Genesis 43:29-44:15).

Can we still acquit Joseph of doing any wrong?  After his brothers have repented of their sins and obeyed his wishes, will he still insist on punishing them, sending them away, and grieving his father?

Again, Judah takes charge.  Judah was the one who got them into this mess.  Judah was the one who had first repented.  Judah was the one who took responsibility, and convinced his father to send them, saving the family from starvation.  In Genesis 44:16-34, he delivers a long speech to Joseph on behalf of his family, reiterating their guilt, his father’s grief, and his willingness to serve as a substitute, in place of Benjamin.  This finally melts Joseph’s bitterness, and he reveals his identity to them.  He also openly acknowledges God’s good intentions in everything that had transpired.  He releases them from responsibility, seeing that God was behind it all.  He weeps, kisses his brothers, and reconciles (Genesis 45:1-15).

This may be one of the most underrated episodes in all of Scripture.  Judah, whose birth transformed Leah into a God-worshipper, who had been reformed from rebel to family leader, offered himself as a substitute, bringing reconciliation to his family, God’s chosen people.  But what is he remembered for?  His scandalous escapade with his prostitute-daughter-in-law.  Why do we like to keep record of sins, rather than chart a person’s journey of transformation?  When did the life of faith become a life of comparison and competition?

While Joseph has rightly been called a “Christ-figure” for his role in blessing all nations (Genesis 50:20-21), Judah could be an even better example.  Joseph is often the fan-favourite, because of his apparently flawless character.  He fits into our religious formulas: go good, and be blessed.  He also fits into our cultural formulas: work hard, and find success.  But, underneath that facade was a deep bitterness that could only be healed by the loving sacrifice of Judah.

Judah’s transformation is a more powerful story, and his role in Christ’s genealogy should not be overlooked.  Judah, who substituted himself for the sins of another, would proceed to become leader of the family, and father of kings (Genesis 49:10), leading to David, and Jesus Christ (Micah 5:2-5) – the ultimate, perfect sacrifice and substitute for our sins.  As Jesus said in Mark 10:45:

For even the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.

Jesus’s genealogy was full of scandalous situations.  The women (let alone the men) mentioned in Matthew 1:1-17 were: Tamar, a foreign, incestuous prostitute; Rahab, a foreign prostitute; Ruth, a foreigner; Bathsheba, an adulteress; and Mary, a pregnant, unwed virgin.  God isn’t trying to keep up appearances.  He is on a mission to call and redeem a people for His glory.  And, in many ways, the rougher the material, the more beautiful the finish.  The darker the night, the brighter the light.

He says about His people, Israel, in Deuteronomy 7:6-8:

“For you are a people holy to the Lord your God. The Lord your God has chosen you to be a people for his treasured possession, out of all the peoples who are on the face of the earth. It was not because you were more in number than any other people that the Lord set his love on you and chose you, for you were the fewest of all peoples, but it is because the Lord loves you and is keeping the oath that he swore to your fathers, that the Lord has brought you out with a mighty hand and redeemed you from the house of slavery, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.

 

And about His people, the Church, in 1 Corinthians 1:26-31:

For consider your calling, brothers: not many of you were wise according to worldly standards, not many were powerful, not many were of noble birth.  But God chose what is foolish in the world to shame the wise; God chose what is weak in the world to shame the strong; God chose what is low and despised in the world, even things that are not, to bring to nothing things that are, so that no human being might boast in the presence of God. And because of him you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom from God, righteousness and sanctification and redemption, so that, as it is written, “Let the one who boasts, boast in the Lord.”

May the stories, in Genesis, of relationships between God and His people, encourage you to know and follow after this loving God who welcomes all to Himself.

Online messages available here.

Lent, Discipline & A Month Without

Today is Ash Wednesday, the beginning of the Lent Season.

Yesterday was “Shrove Tuesday,” or “Fat Tuesday” – the last chance for many to feast and party, before the sombre Lent season commences.  IHOP offers free pancakes to everyone.  Carnivals and parades pop up here and there, especially New Orleans.  Why such a contrast?

Traditionally, Lent is understood to be about self-denial and purification.  It is modeled after Jesus’s 40 days of fasting in the desert, where He confronted and overcame temptation.  Similarly, many Christians use the 40 days leading up to the Easter week as a time of self-denial, or fasting.  Given the nature and length of Lent, it is understandable that it’d be preceded and followed by feasts!  But why fast, in the first place?

Fasting can have two causes, but really one effect.  First, it can be reactive to a problem – a sort of practical repentance from sin.  Something in your life is too big, too harmful, and it needs to go.  Or, at least, you need to break a habit and limit a dependency.  Second, fasting can also be a proactive step of growth – a sort of preparation or purification.  The object of the fast may not necessarily be negative, but it must be removed or restricted in order to create space for something else.  Both cases are illustrated in  Hebrews 12:1-2:

Therefore, since we are surrounded by such a great cloud of witnesses, let us throw off everything that hinders and the sin that so easily entangles. And let us run with perseverance the race marked out for us, fixing our eyes on Jesus, the pioneer and perfecter of faith. For the joy set before him he endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.

Did you notice that?  In order to run our race, of following Jesus, we must not only shed the “sin that entangles,” but also “everything that hinders.”  Fasting, like any spiritual discipline, is about creating space for God to move in our lives.  Richard Foster, in his book, Celebration of Discipline, argues that, while righteousness is purely a gift from God, Spiritual Disciplines “open the door” to His liberation and blessings:

God has given us the Disciplines of the spiritual life as a means of receiving His grace.  The Disciplines allow us to place ourselves before God so that He can transform us (7).

Participating in Lent can run the risk of engaging in legalism.  We can try to perform well, and out-perform others.  Foster also acknowledges this danger, and points us back the the purpose of the Disciplines – as our act of faith in receiving God’s grace.  John Ortberg, in The Life You’ve Always Wanted, says something similar:

Practices such as reading Scripture and praying are important—not because they prove how spiritual we are – but because God can use them to lead us into life (39).

So then, Lent offers us a yearly opportunity to do something together as Christians: to fast, to deprive ourselves, to give up something, in order to create space for God to fill.  What could that look like?

The first time I remember participating in Lent was when I was a teenager.  Even then, I think the meaning was clear to me – give up something that is in the way of your relationship with God.  So, this was reactive.  Yet, even a reactive fast can be proactive, in that it creates space for something better.  I decided to give up TV.  At my home, there was often a TV on, somewhere.  There was also a computer screen or two, or three.  I’m not saying that my family was unhealthy – we were outdoorsy, and ate meals and prayed together.  But for me, the TV was taking up too much space in my life.  I knew it, deep down.

Through that month, I overcame many awkward and isolating situations, and emerged a different person.  My appetite for TV had shrunk.  After a while, I stopped missing it.  My head was clearer, my mind was freer.

Many years later, as a young father, I had time to reflect on my busy life during a 16-day road trip.  We lived in an apartment with two children (and another coming soon) while I served as pastor of an inner-city multicultural church.  As we often do on vacations, my wife and I agreed to make adjustments to our home life, to make it healthier and more sustainable.  For me, I decided to give up something new – every month.

What a fascinating experience.  It seems so daunting beforehand, so agonizing in the process, and so freeing by the end of it.

In September, I gave up pictures.  Having frantically tried to capture every beautiful sight and memorable moment during my road trip, I began to feel like moments and sights had become commodities, or objects for me to ravenously consume, to frantically collect.  I wondered – “what if I just experienced moments for what they were, letting them pass into my memory?”  It was a freeing experience – and I learned to be more attentive.  I learned to appreciate things and let them go, to find intrinsic value in a moment, without the extrinsic benefit of stored images.

Next, it was coffee.  This was a hard one.  My body and mind groaned for caffiene in the early days of October, and I tried to fool it with decaf and tea.  I cheated a little, and learned the gravity of the situation.  I do not want to be addicted to something, like this.

In November, I targeted sports media.  Now, that may or may not sound like a big deal.  But, perhaps everyone can compare it to something – social media, the newspaper, romance novels…whatever you fill your gap-time with.  I tended to check sports scores, news, and highlights whenever I could – waiting at the microwave, on the toilet, on the bus, at a red light, at a playground, in a lineup, or even while waiting for another page to load.  Through this fast, I began redeeming the value of gap-times.  Our bodies need time to breathe; our minds need time to think; our souls need time to pray, practising the presence of God.

Now, it’s March 1, 2017 – here we go again!  Lent is beginning, and so is a new month.  Why not prayerfully reflect on what could give way in your life, to make room for God?  Is it a “sin that entangles?”  Repent of it!  Is it “anything that hinders?” prune it away, so that fruit will come!

For me, I’ve cut my phone data, and have restricted its internet use to Google Maps and News.  Perhaps that seems like nothing, but for many, a phone threatens to become everything.  Its “capabilities” can actually enslave you, by making you feel that things that would normally be done later, elsewhere, should be done here and now.  Ironically, then, greater ability means less freedom.  With a smartphone, I feel that I have no excuse to not respond immediately.  I have endless temptation to remove myself from the moment, and dwell in cyberspace.

For March, my phone is no longer “everything.”  It’s capabilities are limited.  It is a phone, a reader, a music player, a map, and a newspaper.  And, I’m glad – these capabilities enable me to more efficiently do what I would need to do anyways.  But as for email and social media, they can wait.  I don’t need to operate them via a mobile device.  Their place in my life will be my stationary computer.  Why?  What’s the harm?

First, many smartphone capabilities are passive – there when you need them, and invisible when you don’t.  But, mobile email and social media tend to be more active – they send us instant notifications as messages come.  They make us available to be reached by new means.  Like phone calls, they can intrude and distract.  And for me, I’m deciding to assign them a limited place, and make them once again passive – there when I want them.  My hope is that the new space this creates will be filled with a greater sense of God’s presence, listening through Scripture & prayer.

Secondly, the capability to respond instantly via mobile email and social media opens up new risks.
How many rash and regretful messages would you like to take back?
How could waiting a while have changed their tone?
How many long, rambling emails “should have been a phone call”?
How effective can communication be through email and social media, anyways?

Email and social media still have their place in my life.  Email is helpful for conveying written information clearly, thoughtfully, and privately.  Social media is helpful for conveying information publicly, and seeing what others are conveying publicly.  Both are more efficient than their predecessors – snail mail, bulletin boards, etc.  But their place in life will be limited – to my stationary computers.

There is freedom in limitations.  Cattle frolick in a fenced-in field.  Children shamelessly play, within the loving and accepting confines of their home.  Spouses enjoy a special intimacy that comes with commitment.  Parents can enjoy watching their children grow, as they let go of their own plans for the time being.  Workers can enjoy efficiency and productivity, as they narrow and specialize their career focus.  Mature adults learn to take themselves lightly, accepting who they are, and what they will never be.  And hopefully, I will hear God’s voice more clearly, as I limit other ones.

Is there a way that you could create space for God to work in you?

One Size Doesn’t Fit All, by Gary L. McIntosh

Some years ago, as I began shepherding my first church, I ran into some challenges.  The church where I was called to pastor was not like the church in which I grew up.  My childhood church had programs, leadership teams, and a variety of social sub-groups.  My new church was like one, big, extended family, informally led by a few patriarchs and matriarchs.  In my old church, novelty was sought after.  In my new church, history was valued.  Understandably, there were some communication barriers as I sought, along with the church leaders, to discern God’s direction for our way forward.  It was during that pastorate that I was given a book called One Size Doesn’t Fit All.

After following God’s call to a new church, one of the first things the elders and I agreed to do was read this book.  I hoped that it would help create some common ground between me and them – that it would help us understand where we were as a church, and where we should be going.  I wasn’t disappointed.

The book uses a narrative form to express points about the difference between small, medium, and large churches.  Each chapter involves a conversation between a young pastor and an older mentor – who offers him advice about how church ministry operates differently at different stages of growth.

Small churches are defined as 15-200 in attendance, and comprise 80% of all North American Churches.  Their defining characteristic is that they are small enough to be single-cell: they have one pastor, and everyone can know each other.  They grow by attracting people into their warm fellowship, but insist on remaining consistent with the history and culture of the church.  Key families provide continuity in leadership, and members value their individual voice in decision-making.

Medium churches are defined as 201-400 in attendance, and comprise 10% of churches.  They are described as “stretched cell,” where programs, teams, and committees have been added, but are still connected to a single building and leadership circle.  They grow through operating successful programs, which are run by teams and committees that are empowered with authority by the membership.  Leadership is transitioning from pastor + congregation to teams, who move beyond history to present needs.

Large churches have more than 400 in attendance, and comprise the remaining 10% of churches.  Only 1% of all churches have more than 2000 in attendance.  A large church has successfully transitioned to a multi-cell model, involving multiple pastors, services, and/or locations.  Growth occurs through word of mouth – the “buzz” created by its increasing size and impact.  Leadership becomes more centralized in select, specialized leaders, and is driven by a vision for the future.

Must every church progress from small to large, in order to be successful?  No.  While growth should always be sought, it can be accommodated through church planting as well as church expansion.

Does growth happen by simply changing church structure, by acting like a larger church?  No.  The size-descriptions above are descriptive, not prescriptive.  Yet, as growth occurs, these structures and modes of operation should follow closely behind.  They describe what is necessary to keep a church running optimally and smoothly, in its given size.

Then, how does growth happen?  How does a small church become medium?  The author identifies certain barriers to growth in small churches, with corresponding solutions:

  • A small-church image can become entrenched in its identity.  In response, a new sense of purpose must be connected to their identity – As followers of Jesus, what are we called to do?
  • Fellowship can become ingrown.  In response, new avenues must be opened for outsiders to become insiders: classes, small groups, leadership positions.  Ministries run by individuals should transition to being led by teams.
  • Evangelism and Programs can become stale.  In response, encourage new initiatives, celebrate successes, and raise the profile of activities that align with the renewed sense of purpose and mission.  Develop a “star program” that your church can specialize in.

As a church nudges toward medium-size, which issues arise, and how are they dealt with?

  • Complexity makes administration challenging.  In response, develop a distinct identity and focus as a church.  Work on a long-range plan, and improve quality of ministry before quantity.
  • Staff, facilities, and finances become stretched.  In response, duplicate services and ministries in the same location.  Hire more staff, before people begin falling through the cracks.

Clearly, as the book title indicates, there are different challenges and solutions for churches of different sizes.  For me, observing my church’s situation, a number of ideas stood out:

  1. Leaders must be intentional – we would be wise to learn from the past, be grounded in the present, while always looking forward.
  2. There are different sources of church growth – attractive fellowship, ministry programs, and word of mouth.  As the author puts it, “add…divide…multiply.”  To some extent, all can happen at any size, but we can play to our strengths.
  3. When it comes to programs, focus is key – we must identify the gifts and opportunities that God has provided, and respond to His specific leading.  We are not called to be everything to everyone.
  4. For a church to grow, leadership must make room – new leaders must be trained and welcomed.  Authority must transfer from individuals to teams, and from an inner circle to a broader group who share common values, mission, and vision.
  5. It all comes back to our sense of purpose and mission – we are led by Jesus Christ, Who calls us to follow Him, and invite others to do the same.

Did anything mentioned above resonate with you?  What have you seen and experienced in church life?

Genesis 12-22: Called on a Journey of Faith

“Go from your country and your kindred and your father’s house to the land that I will show you.” – Genesis 12:1

What a way to begin a relationship!  God calls Abraham to leave everything behind, and go to a new land – to be made into a new person, for a new purpose.  This marked the beginning of a century-long journey of faith, in which he’d be greatly blessed by God to be a blessing.

This also marked a turning point in how God would operate on earth – how He would pursue a relationship with humankind.  He began by creating humans to be set apart from the other animals – they would bear His image, reflecting His character, relationality, morality, and authority on earth.  They were given dominion over creation – as stewards who were to care for it.   When they rebelled against God and sought independence from Him, death  and separation from God resulted.  Things went from bad to worse, until God determined to start fresh with a single family who were set apart as righteous – Noah, his three sons, and their wives.  Yet, sin remained a systemic problem.  When people united in their rebellion against God at the Tower of Babel, He divided and dispersed them – mitigating the effect of their evil, rather than wiping them out again.  Now, for the third time, God would set apart one couple – this time, not to birth humanity from scratch, but to birth a new nation:

“And I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you and make your name great, so that you will be a blessing. I will bless those who bless you, and him who dishonors you I will curse, and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.” – Genesis 12:2-3

God had dispersed the peoples of the earth into many nations.  Now, He would create one nation to bless them all – one nation through which He would reveal Himself and His salvation to the world.  And it all started with this one man, Abraham, who responded to God’s call with faith.

Abraham was 75 years old, and his wife, Sarah, was barren.  They were perfect candidates for God to show His power, love, and grace.  God, who can create something out of nothing, would call forth a nation from this unlikely couple, who were “as good as dead,” when it came to producing offspring.  But, all they needed to do was believe God’s promises, and receive in faith:

“By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to go out to a place that he was to receive as an inheritance. And he went out, not knowing where he was going.  By faith he went to live in the land of promise, as in a foreign land, living in tents with Isaac and Jacob, heirs with him of the same promise. For he was looking forward to the city that has foundations, whose designer and builder is God. By faith Sarah herself received power to conceive, even when she was past the age, since she considered him faithful who had promised. Therefore from one man, and him as good as dead, were born descendants as many as the stars of heaven and as many as the innumerable grains of sand by the seashore.” – Hebrews 11:8-12

That may sound rosy and wonderful, but the journey was long and winding.  Their faith would be tested and refined along the way.  God’s promises would be threatened.  When they fled a famine and went to Egypt, Abraham fearfully endangered his wife, claiming that they weren’t married.  But God protected her.  When they returned, Abraham gave the better portion of land to his nephew, and then rescued him from invaders.  But God continued to bless him.  Then after waiting 10 years for a son, Abraham and Sarah arranged to have a child through a maidservant, and then cast her out when she rebelled.  But God took care of the maidservant, and promised Sarah a son.  Abraham enjoyed fellowship with God, and God invited Abraham to intercede for his nephew, who was in trouble again.  Abraham endangered Sarah again, and God protected her, again.  Finally, Isaac was born, 25 years after the initial call to faith.  His name referred to the laughter that Abraham and Sarah shared, as God promised and faithfully provided in the most unlikely way:

Then Abraham fell on his face and laughed and said to himself, “Shall a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old? Shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a child?” – Genesis 17:17

And Sarah said, “God has made laughter for me; everyone who hears will laugh over me.” And she said, “Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? Yet I have borne him a son in his old age.” – Genesis 21:6-7

Yet, there was one more step to be taken:  A test of faith.  Some time over the next 37 years, Abraham would be called to give up the greatest gift that God had ever given him.  God had promised to give him a son, through whom a nation would be born, to bless all nations.  And God was asking Abraham to sacrifice him?

Before we throw our view of a loving God out the window, consider the context.  In ancient times, in the land of Canaan, this was standard procedure.  Offering one’s firstborn son to the gods was a common method of seeking continued fertility and fruitful harvests – as later kings of Israel will unfortunately confirm (2 Kings 3:27, 16:3, 17:17, 21:6).  Though God had previously denounced killing humans, who bear His image (Genesis 9:5-6), and though He would later explicitly denounce child sacrifice (Deuteronomy 12:31, 18:9-12), Abraham would not have been as culturally surprised by this command as we are, today.

From the beginning, an enduring principle has remained: God deserves our very best, and He owns it all, anyway.  Abel pleased God by sacrificing the firstborn from his herd (Genesis 4:4).  Abraham and Jacob practised tithing.  Moreover, after God spared Israel from the plague of the firstborn in Egypt, He declared that all firstborn of Israel belonged to Him (Exodus 13:1-2, 22:29-30) as well as the firstfruits of their harvest (23:19).

Yet, God, Who’d have every right to demand anything, provides a way out.  As He redeemed His people from slavery, He offered redemption for the firstborn, who would have been His payment:

“When the Lord brings you into the land of the Canaanites, as he swore to you and your fathers, and shall give it to you, you shall set apart to the Lord all that first opens the womb. All the firstborn of your animals that are males shall be the Lord‘s. Every firstborn of a donkey you shall redeem with a lamb, or if you will not redeem it you shall break its neck. Every firstborn of man among your sons you shall redeem. And when in time to come your son asks you, ‘What does this mean?’ you shall say to him, ‘By a strong hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt, from the house of slavery. For when Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, the Lord killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man and the firstborn of animals. Therefore I sacrifice to the Lord all the males that first open the womb, but all the firstborn of my sons I redeem.’ – Exodus 13:11-15

God provided a way for the firstborn to be redeemed – by way of substitution.  An animal sacrifice would serve as payment for a firstborn.  And the tribe of Levites would collectively take the place of all firstborn, to be devoted to a lifetime of service to God, supported by the offerings of other tribes (Numbers 3:12, 18:21).

And so Abraham and Isaac become a sign of things to come; just as Adam and Eve were to reflect God’s image to all of creation, now Abraham and Isaac were to reflect God’s way of redemption through His chosen nation.  Abraham was willing to give His one and only beloved son, whom He loved (Ishmael had been sent away).  Isaac willingly submitted to His father’s will.  Abraham had departed, early in the morning, on the three-day journey to Mt. Moriah – where it is said that the temple of Jerusalem was later built, where sacrifices for sin would be regularly made.  Isaac carried the wood up the hill, as Jesus carried his cross, nearly two millennia later, to die as our sacrifice, once and for all.  Abraham assured Isaac that the Lord would provide a sacrifice, and Isaac allowed himself to be bound and prepared for sacrifice.  Abraham was a foreshadow of our loving God the Father (John 3:16), while Isaac was a foreshadow of Jesus Christ (Galatians 3:16).

Abraham had passed the test of faith.  He fully expected to return from Mt. Moriah with his son (Genesis 22:5), expecting that the God Who miraculously brought this child into being would also bring Him back from death (Hebrews 11:17-19).  God had always been faithful to His promises.

God did provide a sacrifice on that day – a ram caught in a thicket, who would take Isaac’s place.  Having seen Abraham’s willingness to obey, the Angel of the LORD remarked that “now I know that you fear God” (Genesis 22:12).  The Hebrew word for “know,” here, is yada.  It means to become acquainted, through experience (and it can serve as a euphemism for sex – Genesis 19:5).  The LORD knows everything, but now He has observed Abraham’s obedience first-hand, in relationship.  As a result, He confirms his promise to bless all nations through him (Genesis 22:15-18).

God’s plan was to bless Abraham to be a blessing.  He invited Abraham into a relationship in which promises, when received by faith, would result in works of blessing for others.  Sound familiar?  Notice the sequence of grace-faith-works found in Paul’s summary of our relationship with God:

For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them. – Ephesians 2:8-10

Where do we go from here?  God’s call to Abraham is a call to us, as well.  His life serves as a sort of template for the journey of faith.  Not a manual.  Not a perfect example.  But, a template; a story to compare to our own.  Abraham was called, and he went.  Abraham walked in relationship with God, coming to know Him and discover His faithful character.  And eventually, Abraham was tested.  Would He choose God, or God’s greatest gift?

Abraham was called to leave his past, and even sacrifice his future.  Jesus called his disciples to leave their vocations and give up their lives.  Has your relationship with God involved a departure, a leaving-behind, a repentance, to be made new?

Abraham journeyed with God through thick and thin, growing, learning and blessing others as he went.  What twists, turns, and bumps along the road have you encountered?  What have you learned about God along the way?

Abraham was tested – to see whether his faith was in God, or in the blessing that God had given.  Is there anything more precious to you than a relationship with God, Himself?  Or, is your love for Him conditional – based on His blessings?

God chose Abraham, the man of faith to give birth to a nation that would bless all nations.  His descendants were the Israelites, through whom God continued to reveal Himself.  Through the Israelites, Jesus Christ came, fulfilling God’s promise to bless all.  Through faith in Jesus Christ, we can be part of God’s people, who are blessed to bless.  Our invitation is to walk in the footsteps of the faith that our father Abraham had (Romans 4:12).

I encourage you to reflect on this story of one man’s journey of faith, and compare it to your own walk with God.

***This post is part of a series, titled “God’s Story,” which also involves a God’s story and sermon series.

Political Personality, Policy, and Practice…and where our Hope Belongs

Today is January 20th, 2017 – the day of Donald Trump’s presidential inauguration.  Few expected this day to come – it was perhaps even more surprising than Justin Trudeau’s electoral victory, on October 19, 2015.

The headlines haven’t changed much, since Trump essentially began monopolizing them during the Republican nomination process.  There are those who cry out against his harsh manner, claiming that he lacks the temperament or personality to be a President.  Then, there are those who debate the merits of his policies, and either agree or disagree.  You can now view his speech for yourself.

I spent four years studying International Relations in university, and have maintained a steady interest in the topic during the decade that has followed.  I tend to withhold my verbal support from any particular candidate or party, and certainly don’t place my greatest hopes in them.    It can be easy to cynically claim that each party simply purchases different people’s votes with promises of funding.  Or you could claim that the parties make no difference, because there are un-elected others who run the show, behind the scenes.  Or, if nothing else, you could say that no party is perfect, since they come in ideological “packages,” each with good policies in some areas, and bad policies in others.  So, you need to pick your main issue – will you vote based on policy for taxes, environment, crime, welfare, education, religion, or immigration?

At least, I wish this was the question in people’s minds.  But, alas, it seems like the media, and many others, are preoccupied with this question: Do I like the personality of the leader?

OTTAWA, ON: March 31, 2012 – It only took two and a half rounds for Liberal MP, Justin Trudeau, red corner, to beat Conservative Senator, Patrick Brazeau, blue corner, in their boxing match during the fight for the cure event in Ottawa on Saturday, March 31,2012. (iPOLITICS/ Matthew Usherwood)

We saw this in Canada, where our left-leaning and right-leaning parties, ranked 1 & 2 in the polls, were suddenly swept aside in favor of a young, attractive, populist leader.  The NDP and Conservatives had serious platforms, soberly proposing balanced budgets that each promised a realistic way forward.  But the Liberals had a charismatic leader who, despite his slimmer credentials and lack of experience, captured a majority government on a platform of vague promises and a deficit budget.  “But he’s so handsome and nice…”

Then, our neighbours to the south did something similar.  Now, I might be saying the same thing, even if Hillary had won.  The point is not that Trump beat Hillary, but that both became their party’s candidates, despite the availability of rival candidates with clearer and more inspiring policy platforms.  It is understandable that many Democrats were excited about having the first female candidate, ever.  And many Republicans became excited about the charisma of their independently wealthy, already famous reality show host.  Both were exciting firsts.  But both parties missed out on opportunities to choose candidates with very clear and compelling policies for the betterment of their country.

But on the flip side, when it comes to criticism, I am disappointed to see how much has also focused on the personality of the leader.  People pointed out that Trump is rude.  People found Hillary to be disingenuous.  But what policies did they propose?  Who had the better ideas?  To whom would each be looking, to help guide their country forward.

Why do we do it?  Why do we obsess over the personality of the leader?  Why do we idolize them, as if they have all the answers to our problems, and the ability to satisfy our hopes?  Perhaps these yearnings and desires are not illegitimate, but just misdirected.  C.S. Lewis, in his book Mere Christianity says:

“If we find ourselves with a desire that nothing in this world can satisfy, the most probable explanation is that we were made for another world.”

Or, as King David said in Psalm 62:5-8:
For God alone, O my soul, wait in silence, for my hope is from him.
He only is my rock and my salvation, my fortress; I shall not be shaken.
On God rests my salvation and my glory; my mighty rock, my refuge is God.
Trust in him at all times, O people; pour out your heart before him;God is a refuge for us.

Now, I wouldn’t want to underestimate the importance of a leader’s personality.  In each country, the leader chooses the executive, names members of the judiciary, and can push forward his personal agenda, to a certain point.  Also, the character of a leader can rub off on others – whether it be their fellow politicians, or the public.  So, civility and respect (for the one candidate), and transparency & sincerity (for the other) would be valuable.  But deeper than that, we should be examining policy, and asking – What do they propose to do?

Yet, a final distinction should be made – between policy and practice.  Between promise and production.  Unfortunately, the jury is out on this – we will gain our answer through hindsight, rather than before the election.  In the meantime, let’s not waste our worries in the wrong places.  Consider Who is in charge, and where your hope will find rest.

Psalm 2:1 – Why do the nations rage and the peoples plot in vain?

Psalm 33:10-11The Lord brings the counsel of the nations to nothing; He frustrates the plans of the peoples.  The counsel of the Lord stands forever, the plans of his heart to all generations.

Psalm 42:11 – Why are you cast down, O my soul, and why are you in turmoil within me?  Hope in God; for I shall again praise Him, my salvation and my God.

Genesis 1-11 – The Beginning and a New Beginning

In the beginning, God…

That’s how the Bible begins – in the beginning, before anything, God.  That sets the tone for the rest of history.  God is the Source, the Point of Origin.  He is the Creator, the Sustainer, the Provider, and the Savior.  Yes, eternally our Savior.  John 1 says of Jesus Christ, the Word and Light:

John 1:1-5: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.

And, if the Son is eternal, that would make God eternally Father.  He is eternally loving, relational, and life-giving.  Jesus said,

John 17:24 – Father, I desire that they also, whom you have given me, may be with me where I am, to see my glory that you have given me because you loved me before the foundation of the world.

So this eternally loving, relational, life-giving God made humans in His image, as the crown of His creation.  We, as male and female, were created to reflect God’s loving, relational, and life-giving character by being fruitful and multiplying on the earth.  We were also given dominion over creation, to rule as stewards on His behalf.  God, the Source of the universe, also has given us our purpose.  The two main questions of a worldview are covered.

What do these two truths mean for your life?

What happened next?

As the first chapter indicates, Genesis (and the Bible) is all about God, and His relationship with us.  As you read through Genesis, consider making a heading for each chapter, outlining what God does, and how people respond.  It could go something like this:

  1. God creates – Humans reflect & rule
  2. God provides – Humans fruitful & multiply
  3. God commands – Humans sin & cursed
  4. God gives – Humans kill & divide
  5. God sustains – Humans walk with God
  6. God distinguishes – Humans evil or righteous
  7. God cleanses – Humans destroyed
  8. God promises – Humans saved
  9. God renews – Humans blessed, cursed
  10. God multiplies – Humans unite in pride
  11. God divides – Humans disperse on earth

Out of all His creation, God sets aside humans to bear His image and represent Him on earth.  He blesses them to be fruitful and multiply, but they rebel and are cursed with death.  Their offspring divide, veering in two directions: a sinful line, and a righteous line.  The seventh generation of evil is Lamech, who kills two people; the seventh generation of good is Enoch, who walks with God.  Humanity is sinful and divided.

So, God decides to start over.  He sets aside Noah and his family, the only remaining members of the righteous family line, and wipes out the rest of evil humanity.  He promises to never again do this, and renews the blessing and affirms their value as image-bearers.  But, by the next generation, we are already seeing both blessing and curses.  This time, humanity rebels against God by pridefully uniting, to make their name great, and to reach up to God.  God comes down, and disperses them into many languages and nations, so that they will fill the earth, as intended.  Now, a third new beginning is in order

What a story!  Do you notice the flow?  The repetitive cycle that has begun?
More such patterns occur as you continue through the Bible, especially in books like Judges and 1-2 Kings.

Many have wondered why God would create such a world – that would “mess up” and need to be “re-started.”  If God is so powerful and perfect, how could His creation go so wrong?  That’s where His purpose comes in – He has always planned to work through people who choose to love Him.  He is raising children, not robots.  He started by setting aside humans from animals.  Then, He set aside the righteous line of Noah.  Finally, in chapter 12, He will set aside one family to be a blessing to all…

He has always been inviting people into a relationship with Him – people who hear His calling and recognize their God-given purpose.  He invites us into a lifelong journey of transformation, an eternal experience of love, hope, peace, and joy.

We have the privilege of learning about this in the Story that Scripture lays out for us – including the stories of many individuals who walked with God.  This year, I invite you to journey together through “God’s Story” – a sequence of historical books in the Bible that make up its main narrative.  I look forward to getting to know God and His purposes for us in the year ahead!

***This post is part of a series, titled “God’s Story,” which also involves a God’s story and sermon series.

Skyline Trail, Manning Park, BC